Vol. 16 (2023): XVI International Symposium Contemporary Issues of Literary Criticism Socialist Realism in Literature and Art
Models and Forms of Socialist Realism

Two Endings and Two Truths of „Haki Adzba“

Maka Elbakidze
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University; Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature

Published 2023-12-11


  • Leo Kiacheli,
  • Socialist realism,
  • Modernism,
  • class antagonism


Leo Kiacheli’s “Haki Adzba” was printed in “Saliteraturo Gazeti” in 1933. In this text, called the Magnum opus of the writer, one can see the elements characteristic of both – Socialist realism and Modernism. The novel shows confrontation between two antagonist classes, between morality and worldview of the two peoples, but it is noteworthy that in this confrontation there are no liars and righteous persons, winners and losers: both sides have “their truth” and the writer’s skill is best seen in his neutral position. Along with this main problem, the paper highlights the problem of two different endings of the text and its analysis by both –Soviet and post-Soviet literary critics.